La electroencefalografía en el manejo de la epilepsia

Liane Aguilar Fabré, René Francisco Rodríguez Valdés, Hebert Luis Hernández Montiel

Resumen


La epilepsia es la entidad donde probablemente la electroencefalografía posee mayor valor y potencial. A pesar de que el diagnóstico de la epilepsia es clínico, el electroencefalograma (EEG) continúa siendo una evaluación imprescindible para lograr un acertado diagnóstico y la imposición de una terapéutica adecuada. A través de este artículo, se pretende revisar las tendencias actuales del uso de la electroencefalografía en el estudio de las epilepsias. El estudio de la función cerebral mediante el EEG y otras técnicas neurofisiológicas es imprescindible para responder a las interrogantes más comunes ante la evaluación y el diagnóstico de los eventos paroxísticos neurológicos, específicamente en las epilepsias. Entre el 25 y 30% de los pacientes epilépticos no responden al tratamiento con drogas antiepilépticas, para estos casos, la cirugía es una opción terapéutica. Sin embargo, para poder tener resultados satisfactorios en esta cirugía es indispensable localizar la zona epileptógena, que es el área cerebral indispensable para generar las crisis epilépticas y, debe ser resecada o desconectada para dejar al paciente libre de crisis y determinar que su extirpación no causará secuelas inaceptables. Esta zona epileptógena se infiere a partir de la asociación de pruebas diagnósticas: neuroimagenológicas, neuropsicológicas y neurofisiológicas, en ésta última, la electroencefalografía constituye el aspecto principal de estas valoraciones. El avance de la tecnología ha permitido el desarrollo de novedosas técnicas que en la actualidad permiten un abordaje más completo y cada día menos invasivo para la localización óptima de la zona epileptógena y la realización de una cirugía exitosa.

Palabras clave: neurofisiología, electroencefalograma, epilepsia, videoelectroencefalograma.

Citas


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